内部人士透露社交程序故意让人上瘾,都是想让

来源:http://www.tiLLsonburgredsox.com 作者:留学资讯 人气:111 发布时间:2019-12-14
摘要:文章源于:BBC As Barbra enjoys endlessly scrolling the Pinterest cornucopia, shebuilds a desire to keep the things that delight her. By collectingitems, she’ll be giving the site data about her preferences. Soon shewill follow, pin,

  文章源于:BBC

As Barbra enjoys endlessly scrolling the Pinterest cornucopia, she builds a desire to keep the things that delight her. By collecting items, she’ll be giving the site data about her preferences. Soon she will follow, pin, re-pin, and make other investments, which serve to increase her ties to the site and prime her for future loops through the Hook.

那么科技公司为了让用户上瘾究竟有多努力呢?Aza Raskin表示:“每块屏幕后面,通常会有超过1000名工程师在尽自己最大的努力让你对这款产品上瘾。”Raskin还强调,自己在2006年设计了“无限滚动”这一概念,现在已经变成了所有App的必备功能,因为它能够让用户一直刷下去。

图片 1图片源于:BBC英语

But unlike a sales funnel, which has a set endpoint, the investment phase isn’t about consumers opening up their wallets and moving on with their day. The investment implies an action that improves the service for the next go-around. Inviting friends, stating preferences, building virtual assets, and learning to use new features are all commitments that improve the service for the user. These investments can be leveraged to make the trigger more engaging, the action easier, and the reward more exciting with every pass through the Hook.

2012年从Facebook离职的员工Sandy Parakilas同意Raskin的说法:“社交媒体就像是老虎机,在Facebook的一年半中,我每天都感觉自己在戒烟。”

  美国硅谷的内部人士告诉 BBC ,社交媒体公司故意让用户沉迷于他们的产品以从中获取经济利益。

First-to-Mind Wins

你对手机上瘾吗?相信很多人对于这个问题都不屑一顾,毕竟现在手机已经和生活紧紧捆绑在一起,多玩几个小时怎么了?但是今天美国硅谷的圈内人告诉BBC:我们本不应该花这么多时间在手机上的,但这里的科技公司在他们的平台上设计了多种多样的机制,为的就是让用户们上瘾!

  Facebook and Instagram have told the BBC that their apps are designed to bring people together and that they never set out to create addictive products.

The trigger is the actuator of a behavior — the spark plug in the Hook model. Triggers come in two types: external and internal. Habit-forming technologies start by alerting users with external triggers like an email, a link on a website, or the app icon on a phone. By cycling continuously through these hooks, users begin to form associations with internal triggers, which become attached to existing behaviors and emotions. Soon users are internally triggered every time they feel a certain way. The internal trigger becomes part of their routine behavior, and the habit is formed.

Parakilas还称:“这是一种商业模式,旨在吸引用户,让我们把更多生命浪费在这款应用上,然后把这种关注卖给广告商。”但是Facebook官方的说法却大相径庭:“我们是为了让用户更贴近自己的家人和朋友,还有他们关心的事情,在任何阶段这些东西都不应该成为让人上瘾的因素。”

  Sandy Parakilas, who was a platform operations manager at Facebook in 2011 and 2012, said there was definitely an awareness that Facebook was habit-forming when he worked at the company.

Companies must understand the mechanics of habit formation to increase engagement with their products and services and ultimately help users create beneficial routines.

在BBC最新一集《Panorama》节目中,他们对硅谷的员工进行了采访。前Mozilla和Jawbone的员工Aza Raskin直言:“他们所做的事情就像把毒品撒到应用界面上一样,为的就是让你一次又一次地回来使用它。”

  hook 勾住,吸引住

We’re on the precipice of a new digital era. As infinite distractions compete for our attention, companies are learning to master new tactics to stay relevant in users’ minds and lives. Today, just amassing millions of users is no longer good enough. Companies increasingly find that their economic value is a function of the strength of the habits they create. But as some companies are just waking up to this new reality, others are already cashing in.

对社交网络产生质疑的还有Facebook前员工Leah Pearlman,她打造了“喜欢”功能,也就是我们常说的点赞。但之前她却因为这个功能深陷困扰:“我已经把自我价值建立在了被自己点赞的内容上,当我需要验证自己的想法,我会打开Facebook;当我感到孤单,我会打开Facebook……在我从公司离职之后,停用了一段时间Facebook,那时我才发现自己之前上瘾了。”

  词汇表

Using the example of Barbra, with a click on the interesting picture in her newsfeed, she’s taken to a website she’s never been to before called Pinterest. Once she’s done the intended action (in this case, clicking on the photo), she’s dazzled by what she sees next.

为什么会出现这种情况呢?Raskin表示很多设计师、工程师和产品经理的被聘请来就是干这个的,因为公司为了获得下一轮融资、为了提高股价,就必须让用户在产品上花更多时间,虽然一开始他们并不是想让用户沉迷其中,但久而久之却造成了沉迷。

  阿扎说他发明这个功能的目的不是为了勾住用户,但他表示,许多社交媒体公司的商业模式旨在让用户呆在线上的时间最大化。他说,这鼓励设计师们想出一些能吸引用户的技术诀窍。

社交网络帮助人们建立习惯才是巨大利润的最本质的来源。

不过Facebook还是为上面这个目标做了一下辩解:“我们正在与第三方行为研究公司合作,将产品中会对用户造成伤害的元素剔除,这会让用户在长时间使用的同时,接触到的都是正确、安全的东西。”

  business model 商业模式

But, like it or not, habit-forming technology is already here. The fact that we have greater access to the web through our various devices also gives companies greater access to us. As companies combine this greater access with the ability to collect and process our data at higher speeds than ever before, we’re faced with a future where everything becomes more addictive. This trinity of access, data, and speed creates new opportunities for habit-forming technologies to hook users. Companies need to know how to harness the power of Hooks to improve people’s lives, while consumers need to understand the mechanics of behavior engineering to protect themselves from unwanted manipulation.

研究表明,过度使用社交媒体,其实和抑郁、孤独还有其他很多心理问题存在联系,比如英国青少年每周都会花18个小时在社交媒体上,Pearlman呼吁,所有意识到社交媒体存在问题的青少年应该尽快避开它。

  人文技术中心(Centre for Humane Technology)的阿扎·拉斯金说,社交媒体公司故意在他们的应用程序中使用让人上瘾的技术,以吸引我们尽可能多地呆在他们的平台上。

Type the name of almost any successful consumer web company into your search bar and add the word “addict” after it. Go ahead, I’ll wait. Try “Facebook addict” or “Twitter addict” or even “Pinterest addict,” and you’ll soon get a slew of results from hooked users and observers deriding the narcotic-like properties of these sites. How is it that these companies, producing little more than bits of code displayed on a screen, can seemingly control users’ minds? Why are these sites so addictive, and what does their power mean for the future of the web?

那么问题来了,前员工和公司的说法,谁才是真的呢?

  Aza Raskin invented the endless scroll – the app feature that means you don't have to click to get to the next page and can keep scrolling for far longer than maybe necessary or healthy.

How Facebook, Twitter, and Pinterest Hook Users

因为Facebook是不会放过你们的,该公司的联合创始人Sean Parker在去年的一次演讲上就表示,他们计划让消耗掉用户更多时间,而利用的就是人类心理学上的漏洞。

  桑迪·帕拉吉拉斯在 2011年和 2012年间担任脸书的平台运营经理,他说他在任期间,公司内部确实意识到脸书容易让用户上瘾。

The Gist

对于“无限滚动”,Raskin坦言如果你没有给时间让你的大脑追上并拦下你的冲动,那么就会一直划动下去。“这一机制让用户在手机上花的时间远超必要,虽然我没有因此上瘾,但为此感到内疚”,Raskin遗憾地说,所以在他现在做的产品上,他加入了单色模式,就是为了减少App的吸引力。

  Aza says he did not intend to hook users with it but says the business model of many social media companies is designed to maximise user time online. He says this encourages designers to come up with technological tricks that hook users.

抄录:

  addictive 使人上瘾的

A company that forms strong user habits enjoys several benefits to its bottom line. For one, it creates associations with “internal triggers” in users’ minds. That is to say, users come to the site without any external prompting. Instead of relying on expensive marketing or worrying about differentiation, habit-forming companies get users to cue themselves to action by attaching their services to the users’ daily routines and emotions. A cemented habit is when users unconsciously think, I’m bored, and Facebook instantly comes to mind. They think, I wonder what’s going on in the world? and before rational thought kicks in, Twitter is the answer. The first-to-mind solution wins.

  endless scroll 无限下拉滚动

Trigger

  deliberately 故意地

Nir Eyal is the author of Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Products and blogs about the psychology of products at NirAndFar.com. For more insights on using psychology to change behavior, join his newsletter and receive a free workbook.

  实习编辑:朱子发 责任编辑:赵润琰

Superpower

  阿扎·拉斯金发明了无限下拉滚动的功能,这个应用程序功能意味着你不需要点击进入下一个页面,你可以无限地下拉页面,但滚动的时间可能比必要的或健康的标准长得多。

Consumers must understand how habit-forming technology works to prevent unwanted manipulation while still enjoying the benefits of these innovations.

  lure 诱惑,吸引

Variable schedules of reward are one of the most powerful tools that companies use to hook users. Research shows that levels of dopamine — the neurotransmitter that helps control the brain’s pleasure center — surge when the brain is expecting a reward. Introducing variability multiplies the effect, creating a frenzied hunting state, activating the parts associated with wanting and desire. Although classic examples include slot machines and lotteries, variable rewards are prevalent in habit-forming technologies as well.

  habit-forming (活动)易成瘾的

When Barbra lands on Pinterest, not only does she see the image she intended to find, but she’s also served a multitude of other glittering objects. The images are associated with what she’s generally interested in — namely, things to see during a trip to rural Pennsylvania — but there are also some others that catch her eye. The exciting juxtaposition of relevant and irrelevant, tantalizing and plain, beautiful and common sets her brain’s dopamine system aflutter with the promise of reward. Now she’s spending more time on the site, hunting for the next wonderful thing to find. Before she knows it, she’s spent 45 minutes scrolling in search of her next hit.

  awareness 意识、认识

A reader recently wrote to me, “If it can’t be used for evil, it’s not a superpower.” He’s right. And under this definition, habit design is indeed a super power. If used for good, habits can enhance people’s lives with entertaining, and even healthful, routines. If used to exploit, habits can turn into wasteful addictions.

  platforms 平台

From “Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Products” by Nir Eyal

  Aza Raskin from the Centre for Humane Technology said social media companies deliberately use addictive technology in their apps in order to lure us in to spending as much time on their platforms as possible.

Investment

  脸书和照片墙告诉 BBC他们的应用程序的设计理念是让人们聚在一起,而从未想开发让人上瘾的产品。

Action

Creating associations with internal triggers comes from building the four components of a Hook — a trigger, action, variable reward, and investment.

Variable Reward

原文地址

But how do companies create a connection with the internal cues needed to form habits? They manufacture desire. While fans of Mad Men are familiar with how the ad industry once created consumer desire during Madison Avenue’s golden era, those days are long gone. A multiscreen world, with ad-wary consumers and a lack of ROI metrics, has rendered Don Draper’s big-budget brainwashing useless to all but the biggest brands. Instead, startups manufacture desire by guiding users through a series of experiences designed to create habits. I call these experiences Hooks, and the more often users run through them, the more likely they are to self-trigger.

图片 2

Manufacturing Desire

For example, suppose Barbra, a young woman in Pennsylvania, happens to see a photo in her Facebook newsfeed taken by a family member from a rural part of the state. It’s a lovely photo, and since she’s planning a trip there with her brother Johnny, the trigger intrigues her.

I wrote Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Products to help others understand what is at the heart of habit-forming technology. The book highlights common patterns I observed in my career in the video gaming and online advertising industries. While my model is generic enough for a broad explanation of habit formation, I’ll focus on applications in consumer internet here.

Habit-forming technology creates associations with “internal triggers,” which cue users without the need for marketing, messaging, or other external stimuli.

原文链接:https://magenta.as/

After the trigger comes the intended action. Here, companies leverage two pulleys of human behavior: motivation and ability. To increase the odds of a user taking the intended action, the behavior designer makes the action as easy as possible, while simultaneously boosting the user’s motivation. This phase of the Hook draws on the art and science of usability design to ensure that the user acts the way the designer intends.

What separates Hooks from a plain vanilla feedback loop is their ability to create wanting in the user. Feedback loops are all around us, but predictable ones don’t create desire. The predictable response of your fridge light turning on when you open the door doesn’t drive you to keep opening it again and again. However, add some variability to the mix — say, a different treat magically appears in your fridge every time you open it — and voilà, intrigue is created. You’ll be opening that door like a lab animal in a Skinner box.

The last phase of the Hook is where the user is asked to do bit of work. This phase has two goals as far as the behavior engineer is concerned. The first is to increase the odds that the user will make another pass through the Hook when presented with the next trigger. Second, now that the user’s brain is swimming in dopamine from the anticipation of reward in the previous phase, it’s time to pay some bills. The investment generally comes in the form of asking the user to give some combination of time, data, effort, social capital, or money.

众多的社交网络让无数人上瘾,而有些人的上瘾程度堪比吸食海洛因。Facebook,Twitter等社交网络从它们建立的用户习惯中得到了无尽的经济价值,让人上瘾是手段,让人掏钱是目的。一开始,人们需要一定的诱因,外在的或者内在的,社交网络让无聊的生活有意思就是一个内在的诱因,属于潜意识和无理性的,当你打开应用时,它马上给你制造了期望,让你行动起来,上传图片得赞,评论有回应,制造各种奖励持续推动你参与。接下来让你掏钱的时间到了,因为你的期望值增加了,需要更进一步的刺激,而这些需要付费。最后如果你在社交网络中得到难以想象的快乐,那么你一定上瘾了。这可能也算是双赢,你得到了在别处没有的快乐,而社交网络得到了金钱。

The tactics that the best digital brands use to stay relevant in users’ minds and lives.

The degree to which a company can utilize habit-forming technologies will increasingly decide which products and services succeed or fail.

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